Magnetron Ionized Metal Physical
Vapor Deposition

Junqing Lu
Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering
Mark J. Kushner
Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering
University of Illinois
Urbana, IL 61801

Conventional sputtering for microelectronic fabrication produces poorly collimated neutral atom fluxes. Ion fluxes, however, can be accelerated and collimated by using a conventional dc or rf substrate bias. Hence, magnetron ionized metal physical vapor deposition (IMPVD) can produce highly ionized metal fluxes that can be used to fill high-aspect-ratio vias and trenches in microelectronic devices.

A Design of Experiment (DOE) has been numerically performed for an IMPVD reactor using an inductively coupled plasma and a capacitively biased substrate. Gas pressure (10 40 mTorr), reactor geometry (height/radius = 0.5 to 1), ICP power (0.5 2 kW), and number of inductive coils (2 6) are the design variables. Uniformity, magnitude, and ionization fraction of the depositing fluxes are the response variables. The influence of the design variables on the response variables is examined, with the goals of obtaining high uniformity, high magnitude, and high ionization fraction of the depositing metal fluxes. The computational tool used in this study is the two-dimensional Hybrid Plasma Equipment Model (HPEM). The HPEM model is being extended to a three-dimensional model.


It was found that: (a) uniformity maximizes at high aspect ratio, low power, and high pressure; (b) flux magnitude maximizes at low aspect ratio, high power, and low pressure; (c) ionization fraction maximizes at high aspect ratio, high power, and high pressure. The copper ion density distribution predicted by HPEM is shown below for an IMPVD reactor.